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MessagePosté le: Dim 26 Déc - 11:11 (2010)    Sujet du message: STARBUSTER Répondre en citant






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Le Bell X-2 Starbuster    

    
I. Origine    
Translate :
Création/Mise à jour : 25/11/2003
I. Origine
II. Description
III. Les essais en vol
IV. Les essais en vol -Suite-
V. Les vols records
VI. Objectif Mach 3









 
(Crédit des photos de ce dossier : Bell et NASA)    
    
 
Le X-2 était un avion à aile en flèche conçu pour voler à trois fois la vitesse du son et à des altitudes supérieures à 30 000 mètres. Il servit à l’étude des problèmes d’échauffement cinétique, de stabilité aérodynamique et d’efficacité des commandes de vol aux vitesses et altitudes élevées. Bien que le programme X-2 ne fut pas considéré comme très réussi, essentiellement à cause de la perte prématurée des deux avions et de leur pilotes, il permit de battre le record de vitesse et d’altitude et ouvrit la voie au plus fameux des avions-fusée, le North American X-15.
Au moment du lancement du programme X-2 (d’abord dénommé XS-2), en 1945, les appareils de recherche américains étaient tous munis d’ailes droites. Bell avait pourtant proposé un X-1 à aile en flèche (le Model 37D) mais, pour le Bell XS-1 (et ses dérivés, X-1A, B et E) et le Douglas D-558-1 Skystreak, l’USAAF, la NAVY et le NACA avaient estimé qu’une aile en flèche était trop novatrice et qu’elle esquivait plutôt les problèmes des vitesses transsoniques alors que les scientifiques voulaient plutôt les affronter pour les étudier.
    
 
    
 
Une fois le mur du son franchi et les phénomènes transsoniques bien compris, les ingénieurs du NACA voulaient passer aux étapes suivantes, à savoir Mach 2 puis Mach 3 et les altitudes supérieures à 30000 mètres.
A ces vitesses, les scientifiques prévoyaient un phénomène thermique provoqué par le frottement aérodynamique, plus communément appelé « mur de la chaleur ». Une autre grosse difficulté prévisible du vol à mach 3 était de fournir des commandes de vol efficaces et de garantir la stabilité de l’appareil.
    
Il s’agissait également, pour les ingénieurs, de déterminer les avantages et inconvénients de l’aile en flèche en transsonique puis en supersonique. En effet, en 1945, les connaissances sur les ailes à forte flèche étaient uniquement théoriques. Les travaux de Robert Jones aux USA et d’Adolph Busemann en Allemagne sur le sujet fournirent tout de même des arguments pour lancer la fabrication d’un appareil munis d’ailes en flèche pour franchir Mach 2 puis Mach 3 (mais contrairement aux apparences, une aile en flèche n’est pas obligatoire pour atteindre des grandes vitesses puisque le plus rapide des avions, le X-15, avait une aile trapézoïdale à faible flèche).
    
 
    
 
Comme pour l’étude du mur du son, la Navy et l’USAAF lancèrent séparément un programme d’avion de recherche. En décembre 1945, L’USAAF lança le programme MX-743 pour le développement, la construction et les essais en vol de deux exemplaires d’un avion de recherche capable d’explorer les conditions de vol jusqu’à Mach 3 et 30 km d’altitude. Le programme de la Navy, sous la forme du D-558-2 Skystreak, devait également étudier les ailes en flèche mais avec des objectifs moins ambitieux en terme de vitesse, puisque limités à Mach 2.
Le programme de l’USAAF fut confié à Bell Aircraft avec une lettre de commande datée du 14 décembre 1945. Larry Bell confia à Stanley Smith et à son équipe (Jack Strickler, Paul Emmons, Jack Woolams, Harold Hawkins, Charles Fay et Robert Stanley) le soin de concevoir le XS-2 (puis X-2) désigné en interne Bell Model 52. A cette époque, la seconde guerre mondiale venait juste de se terminer, un appareil à ailes en flèche capable de Mach 3 était extrêmement ambitieux.
De fait, le mur du son ne serait vaincu que deux ans plus tard par Yeager et le X-1 et seuls les ingénieurs allemands avaient déjà envisagé des appareils à ailes en flèche supersonique avec le DFS 346 (qui ne pourra d’ailleurs pas dépasser le mur du son quand les Russes l’essaieront après la guerre). Cependant l'équipe de Bell avait déjà une petite expérience des appareils à aile en flèche avec les études sur le Model 37 et surtout les Bell L-39, deux P-63C-5 équipés d'ailes en flèche.
En novembre 1950, cinq ans après le début du programme, Bell Aircraft livra le deuxième X-2 (numéro de série 46-675) à l’USAF. Cet appareil fut livré sans moteur-fusée pour être testé en vol plané dans un premier temps. Le X-2 n°1 fut livré un peu plus tard munis de son système de propulsion.
    
Sources :
    
Le Bell X-2 Starbuster
    
    







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http://twitter.com/NASA Twitter updates from NASA / NASA en-us Got a new digital toy? Download and explore some of our apps that look at the Sun, moon, space pics, etc http://go.nasa.gov/bCsDTU Sat, 25 Dec 2010 16:56:01 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/18711573354774528 http://go.nasa.gov/bCsDTU Apollo 8's Anders, Borman and Lovell went into lunar orbit on Christmas Eve 1968. Watch their famous message: http://go.nasa.gov/fl0gWI Sat, 25 Dec 2010 01:52:02 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/18484076893700097 http://go.nasa.gov/fl0gWI Dec. 25/56, watch @Astro_Flow & @Astro_Sandy talk to @teenkidsnews about going to space. Check local listing http://go.nasa.gov/hZfrBb Fri, 24 Dec 2010 14:00:18 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/18304964392656897 http://go.nasa.gov/hZfrBb Watch @Astro_Flow & @Astro_Sandy interviews with @teenkidsnews. Show airs Dec. 25/26. Check local listing: http://go.nasa.gov/hZfrBb Thu, 23 Dec 2010 19:50:02 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/18030589223378944 http://go.nasa.gov/hZfrBb Science discoveries, tech achievements: Pt.1of This Year @NASA (w/Pt.1) premieres today @ 2pmET 1900UT on NASA TV http://go.nasa.gov/ax5PCk Thu, 23 Dec 2010 17:45:09 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17999162410799104 http://go.nasa.gov/ax5PCk Check out how technologies developed by NASA enhance your daily life here on Earth -- NASA Spinoff 2010 is out -- http://bit.ly/hHKGTz Thu, 23 Dec 2010 14:40:03 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17952581884059648 http://bit.ly/hHKGTz [Image of the Day] Where Stars Are Born: This mosaic image is the sharpest wide-angle view ever obtained of... http://go.nasa.gov/gdmdHn Thu, 23 Dec 2010 14:00:44 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17942685998391296 http://go.nasa.gov/gdmdHn Check out NASA TV’s Season’s Greetings ID! http://go.nasa.gov/hMsZ5D Wed, 22 Dec 2010 21:33:01 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17694120143224832 http://go.nasa.gov/hMsZ5D Watch a blue-hued sunset on Mars as seen from the Opportunity rover in this new video simulation: http://go.nasa.gov/hftJRS Wed, 22 Dec 2010 20:36:01 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17679776525324288 http://go.nasa.gov/hftJRS Announcing the next #NASATweetup - Feb. 11 @NASA_Ames in California http://go.nasa.gov/TweetAmes | Register Jan 5-10 Wed, 22 Dec 2010 20:13:25 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17674086188589056 http://go.nasa.gov/TweetAmes Hope you enjoyed the video of Discovery's rollback. If you're looking for "Best of the Best" video, it's at http://go.nasa.gov/fTUeMb Wed, 22 Dec 2010 19:35:52 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17664637168259072 http://go.nasa.gov/fTUeMb Spectacular slo-mo views of shuttle launches on “Best of the Best” @ NASA TV’s You Tube channel! http://go.nasa.gov/hQr5bs Wed, 22 Dec 2010 18:31:04 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17648328229523456 http://go.nasa.gov/hQr5bs [News] NASA Spinoff 2010 Reveals Benefits Of Space Technology In Our Daily Lives: The 2010 edition of NASA'... http://go.nasa.gov/esqYXL Wed, 22 Dec 2010 17:49:36 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17637896936755200 http://go.nasa.gov/esqYXL Met with John Logsdon and received an early holiday gift... a copy of his new book. Thanks, John! http://yfrog.com/gz0h80j Wed, 22 Dec 2010 16:55:22 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17624246356279296 http://yfrog.com/gz0h80j When sending your holiday greetings this year, don't forget the 6 people living on the space station! http://go.nasa.gov/hOuaAI Wed, 22 Dec 2010 16:30:04 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17617879193100288 http://go.nasa.gov/hOuaAI Discovery rolls back from pad for tests on external fuel tank. NASA TV’s VideoFile @ noon ET (17:00 GMT) http://go.nasa.gov/ax5PCk Wed, 22 Dec 2010 15:58:55 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17610042068967424 http://go.nasa.gov/ax5PCk Guess which mode of air transport would make Rudolph's eyes water! A new Test Your Knowledge question at http://go.nasa.gov/bzyWFH Wed, 22 Dec 2010 15:01:07 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17595493076967425 http://go.nasa.gov/bzyWFH [Image of the Day] Reflections: In this image from Friday, Dec. 17, space shuttle Discovery sat on Launch P... http://go.nasa.gov/eBV6jX Wed, 22 Dec 2010 14:54:48 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17593904924721153 http://go.nasa.gov/eBV6jX Where the heavy rains have been falling in California the past week. http://go.usa.gov/rco Wed, 22 Dec 2010 14:38:59 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17589926409277441 http://go.usa.gov/rco 200+ miles up, 6 people are orbiting Earth, working on the space station. Send them a holiday greeting: http://go.nasa.gov/hOuaAI Wed, 22 Dec 2010 13:37:00 GMT http://twitter.com/NASA/statuses/17574327247446016 http://go.nasa.gov/hOuaAI
  • Got a new digital toy? Download and explore some of our apps that look at the Sun, moon, space pics, etc (link)
    about 17 hours ago
  • Apollo 8's Anders, Borman and Lovell went into lunar orbit on Christmas Eve 1968. Watch their famous message: (link)
    about 1 day ago
  • Dec. 25/56, watch @Astro_Flow & @Astro_Sandy talk to @teenkidsnews about going to space. Check local listing (link)
    about 1 day ago
  • Watch @Astro_Flow & @Astro_Sandy interviews with @teenkidsnews. Show airs Dec. 25/26. Check local listing: (link)
    about 2 days ago
  • Science discoveries, tech achievements: Pt.1of This Year @NASA (w/Pt.1) premieres today @ 2pmET 1900UT on NASA TV (link)
    about 2 days ago
  • Check out how technologies developed by NASA enhance your daily life here on Earth -- NASA Spinoff 2010 is out -- (link)
    about 2 days ago
  • › More Updates →






 
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              12.15.09
              Bell X-2 Starbuster


              The Bell X-2 was a rocket-powered, swept-wing research aircraft designed to investigate the structural effects of aerodynamic heating as well as stability and control effectiveness at high speeds and altitudes. The program was developed jointly in 1945 by Bell Aircraft Corporation, the U.S. Air Force and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) to explore aerodynamic problems of supersonic flight and to expand the speed and altitude regimes obtained with the earlier X-1 series of research aircraft.
              This 1952 photograph shows the X-2 #2 aircraft mounted on a special transportation dolly at Edwards Air Force Base, California.
              In 1946, the NACA Pilotless Aircraft Research Division (PARD) began testing rocket launched X-2 models at Wallops Island, Va., to gather stability and control data. Additional tests helped NACA and Bell engineers design a pilot escape system for the X-2. The NACA made its spin tunnel and supersonic wind-tunnels at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, Va., available to evaluate various aspects of the X-2 design. The NACA was also responsible for scientific instrumentation of the X-2.
              Two X-2 airframes, nicknamed "Starbuster," were built at Bell's plant in Wheatfield, N.Y., using stainless steel and K-monel (a copper-nickel alloy). The vehicles were designed to employ a two-chamber Curtiss-Wright XLR25 throttleable liquid-fueled rocket engine. It had a variable thrust rating from 2,500 to 15,000 pounds. The X-2 was equipped with an escape capsule for the pilot. In an emergency, the entire nose assembly would jettison and deploy a stabilizing parachute. Once at a safe altitude, the pilot would then manually open the canopy and bail out. Although the Air Force approved the final escape system design, NACA representatives were concerned that it might prove dangerous to use.
              A Boeing B-50A bomber was modified to carry the X-2 to launch altitudes around 30,000 feet. The pilot then climbed into the X-2, dropped away from the bomber, and ignited the engines if it was a planned powered flight. After engine burnout, the pilot guided the X-2 to an unpowered landing on the surface of Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
              The X-2 (46-674) drops away from its Boeing B-50 mothership. Lt. Col. Frank "Pete" Everest piloted 674 on its first unpowered flight on 5 August 1954.
              Because of a decision to install the first available engine in airframe 46-674, airframe 46-675 was delivered to Edwards first for glide tests. It arrived at Edwards on April 22, 1952. After two captive flights, Bell test pilot Jean L. "Skip" Ziegler made the first glide flight on June 27. A rough landing caused some damage to the aircraft and the second glide flight was delayed until Oct. 8. Two days later, Air Force test pilot Maj. Frank K. "Pete" Everest successfully completed the third glide flight of the X-2.
              Following the unpowered tests, the X-2 was returned to Bell's plant in New York. The engine had not yet been installed in the first X-2, 46-674, so it was installed in the second shortly after it returned to Wheatfield. Captive flights with the new engine were carried out over Lake Ontario. During a flight to check the liquid oxygen system, an explosion resulted in the loss of the X-2 and severe damage to the B-50. Skip Ziegler and B-50 crew member Frank Wolko were both killed. The X-2 fell into Lake Ontario and was not recovered. The B-50A was damaged beyond economic repair and was subsequently replaced with a modified B-50D.
              at Wheatfield, N.Y. The following day, it began its journey to Edwards beneath the B-50D. The aircraft arrived on July 15 and technicians at the NACA High Speed Flight Station (HSFS) began to install instrumentation to gather handling qualities data. On the advice on the NACA, the Air Force purchased a Goodyear Electronic Digital Analyzer (GEDA) analog computer. Richard E. Day, NACA project engineer for the X-2, programmed the GEDA and turned it into a rudimentary flight simulator for the aircraft.
              On Aug. 5, 1954, the X-2 was carried aloft for another captive flight beneath the B-50. Later that day, the X-2 was carried aloft for a second time and released. Pete Everest, now a lieutenant colonel, made a successful glide flight that ended in a rough landing on the lakebed. The vehicle sustained minor damage and was returned to Wheatfield for repair.
              This 1952 photograph shows the X-2 with a collapsed nose landing gear, after landing on the first glide flight at Edwards Air Force Base.
              The X-2 returned to Edwards on Jan. 16, 1955, and captive flights resumed on Feb. 5 for propellant system checks. After several captive missions, two more glide flights were accomplished in March and April. Damage to the aircraft during landing required the X-2 to return to New York once again.
              The first attempt at a powered flight took place on Oct. 25, 1955, but a nitrogen leak resulted in a decision to change the flight plan. Everest completed the mission as a glide flight. An aborted second attempt ended as a captive flight. Everest finally made the first powered X-2 flight on Nov. 18, igniting only the 5,000-pound-thrust chamber. His maximum speed during the mission was Mach 0.95. Following several aborted attempts, Everest completed a second powered flight on March 24, 1956, this time only igniting the 10,000-pound-thrust rocket chamber.
              Both chambers were used for the first supersonic X-2 flight on April 25. The airplane reached a speed of Mach 1.40 and a maximum altitude of 50,000 feet. Everest completed three flights in May that pushed the airplane's speed envelope to Mach 2.53. On May 25, 1956, a new pilot was checked out in the X-2, Capt. Iven C. Kincheloe. He made a successful supersonic flight, but had to shut the engine down prematurely due to a malfunction. In June, the airplane was grounded for installation of engine nozzle extensions to improve performance. Everest made a supersonic checkout of the modified X-2 on July 12. Everest's final X-2 flight, on July 23, 1956, earned him the title "Fastest Man Alive." While gathering data on aerodynamic heating, Everest achieved a speed of Mach 2.87 at 68,000 feet.
              This inflight photograph of the X-2 shows the twin set of shock-diamonds, characteristic of supersonic conditions in the exhaust plume from the two-chamber rocket engine.
              Kincheloe now assumed the role of X-2 project pilot for a series of high-altitude missions. After two aborted flight attempts, he successfully accomplished a climb to 87,750 feet while gathering stability data on Aug. 3, 1956. That same day, NACA director Hugh L. Dryden requested that the Air Force loan the X-2 to the NACA for research purposes. The Air Force continued to fly the airplane while attempting to achieve its maximum altitude capability. While a flight on Aug. 8, failed to exceed 70,000 feet, another attempt on Sept. 7 reached an altitude of 126,200 feet. This earned Kincheloe the title "First of the Spacemen" and a record that stood until the advent of the X-15 program. Kincheloe made three additional flight attempts, but each ended in an abort.
              The Air Force was due to transfer the X-2 to the NACA in mid-September and preparations were underway. Researchers at the NACA High Speed Flight Station were anxious to use the X-2 for heating investigations in the Mach 2 to Mach 3 range and study handling characteristics at extreme altitudes and speeds. The Air Force, however, asked for an extension of their program so that another pilot could be checked out. As Capt. Milburn G. "Mel" Apt practiced simulated missions on the GEDA, representatives from the Air Force, the NACA, and Bell agreed on a flight plan.
              On Sept. 27, 1956, Apt became the first person to fly faster than three times the speed of sound. The engine burned slightly longer than expected and Apt flew a near perfect flight profile, allowing him to reach a speed of 2,094 mph (Mach 3.196). Elation was short lived. For some reason, Apt initiated a sharp turn back toward Edwards. This resulted in a control divergence known as inertial coupling. The X-2 began to tumble uncontrollably. Apt jettisoned the escape capsule, but was unable to extract himself before it struck the ground. Apt's death cast a shadow over the most spectacular achievement of the program.

               
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